# for i 1 ixi 總和 Identity Identity matrix
In some fields, such as group theory or quantum mechanics, the identity matrix is sometimes denoted by a boldface one, 1, or called “id” (short for identity); otherwise it is identical to I. Less frequently, some mathematics books use U or E to represent the identity matrix, meaning “unit matrix”  and the German word Einheitsmatrix respectively.
Functions Inverse Calculator

## New York University

· DOC 檔案 · 網頁檢視If E[x] = 1/(, then is a consistent estimator of 1/(, and ( can be estimated consistently using 1/. Once again, this estimator will not be unbiased, since is unbiased for 1/( and the reciprocal function is …
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Natural logarithm
Like all logarithms, the natural logarithm maps multiplication of positive numbers into addition: ln ⁡ x y = ln ⁡ x + ln ⁡ y . {\displaystyle \ln xy=\ln x+\ln y.}  Logarithms can be defined for any positive base other than 1, not only e. However, logarithms in other bases differ only by a constant multiplier from the natural logarithm
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## x = e 2zi, Im-r > O, IxI < 1, 1/f(x) = : p(n)xn,

· PDF 檔案1. Introduction. Let x = e 2zi, Im-r > O, IxI < 1, 00 f(x) = 171 (I x-)X r=1 7(r) = eziz1l2f(X), 1/f(x) = : p(n)xn, n = O , but not all. We now denote by Sr the sum of the rth powers of the roots of (17), regarded as an equation in t. Evidently we have (21) Sr = Z arp

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